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Rebecca Hansford
Capital Markets Union – Key Performance Indicators (Second Edition)
16 Oct 2019
Available inFrench,German,ItalianandSpanish. This second edition of AFME’s annual report tracks the progress of the Capital Markets Union (CMU) project through eight Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). It is a joint publication with ten trade associations and international organisations representing global and European capital markets stakeholders. The report includes a country-by-country comparison of individual EU Member State progress against the CMU’s objectives.This year’s report also includes a new indicator measuring how well EU countries aredeveloping their FinTech ecosystems. Key findings include: Europe strengthened its global leadership in sustainable finance - Issuance of sustainable bonds increased 16% in the EU during 2018 to €69bn, an increase of €9bn compared to 2017. The EU 27 lags behind on FinTech funding - EU27 FinTech companies have only benefited from $7.2bn in investments (venture capital, seed, angel and private equity) since 2009, compared with $120bn in the US, $23.8bn in China and $20.3bn in the UK. Europe’s reliance on bank lending has increased - European companies continue to over rely on bank lending, with 88% of their new funding in 2018 coming from banks and only 12% from capital markets – a decline from 14% on average in 2013-2017. As the EU begins a new political cycle, there is an increasing focus on the need to further develop the Capital Markets Union. While some of our report’s indicators show a positive trajectory since last year’s results, such as Europe’s global leadership in sustainable finance, it is clear that there is still much work to be done at European and national levels, particularly on making Europe’s capital markets more competitive. The 2018 first edition of the report can be foundhere.
Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in Capital Markets: Considerations for a Broad Framework for Transparency
18 Sep 2019
As the adoption of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) in capital markets continues at pace, attention is increasingly being focused on how capital markets firms can demonstrate a responsible approach to their use of the technology. This white paper has been developed by AFME’s AI Task Force to consider how to approach transparency in AI/ML, which is a key factor in demonstrating and ensuring the safe and effective deployment of trustworthy AI/ML in capital markets. The paper suggests a technology-neutral, principles-based approach to transparency, built around the assumptions used in the development of AI/ML models and testing of those models, to meet stakeholder needs. In any use of AI/ML, transparency is important to a wide range of stakeholders, as it can demonstrate how an AI/ML model has been developed, how it will be used and monitored, and how it can stand up to scrutiny and challenge. This is crucial for building trust in the technology, both within a firm and with external stakeholders such as clients and regulators. This is the third in a series of white papers produced by AFME’s AI Task Force. The first paper considered the use-cases, benefits and risks of AI in capital markets, while the second paper explored ethical considerations. This third, more technical, white paper discusses the concept of transparency in AI/ML.