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Rebecca Hansford
Capital Markets Union – Key Performance Indicators (Second Edition)
16 Oct 2019
This second edition of AFME’s annual report tracks the progress of the Capital Markets Union (CMU) project through eight Key Performance Indicators (KPIs). It is a joint publication with ten trade associations and international organisations representing global and European capital markets stakeholders. The report includes a country-by-country comparison of individual EU Member State progress against the CMU’s objectives.This year’s report also includes a new indicator measuring how well EU countries aredeveloping their FinTech ecosystems. Key findings include: Europe strengthened its global leadership in sustainable finance - Issuance of sustainable bonds increased 16% in the EU during 2018 to €69bn, an increase of €9bn compared to 2017. The EU 27 lags behind on FinTech funding - EU27 FinTech companies have only benefited from $7.2bn in investments (venture capital, seed, angel and private equity) since 2009, compared with $120bn in the US, $23.8bn in China and $20.3bn in the UK. Europe’s reliance on bank lending has increased - European companies continue to over rely on bank lending, with 88% of their new funding in 2018 coming from banks and only 12% from capital markets – a decline from 14% on average in 2013-2017. As the EU begins a new political cycle, there is an increasing focus on the need to further develop the Capital Markets Union. While some of our report’s indicators show a positive trajectory since last year’s results, such as Europe’s global leadership in sustainable finance, it is clear that there is still much work to be done at European and national levels, particularly on making Europe’s capital markets more competitive. The 2018 first edition of the report can be foundhere.
Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in Capital Markets: Considerations for a Broad Framework for Transparency
18 Sep 2019
As the adoption of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) in capital markets continues at pace, attention is increasingly being focused on how capital markets firms can demonstrate a responsible approach to their use of the technology. This white paper has been developed by AFME’s AI Task Force to consider how to approach transparency in AI/ML, which is a key factor in demonstrating and ensuring the safe and effective deployment of trustworthy AI/ML in capital markets. The paper suggests a technology-neutral, principles-based approach to transparency, built around the assumptions used in the development of AI/ML models and testing of those models, to meet stakeholder needs. In any use of AI/ML, transparency is important to a wide range of stakeholders, as it can demonstrate how an AI/ML model has been developed, how it will be used and monitored, and how it can stand up to scrutiny and challenge. This is crucial for building trust in the technology, both within a firm and with external stakeholders such as clients and regulators. This is the third in a series of white papers produced by AFME’s AI Task Force. The first paper considered the use-cases, benefits and risks of AI in capital markets, while the second paper explored ethical considerations. This third, more technical, white paper discusses the concept of transparency in AI/ML.
The European banking system: tackling the challenges, realising the opportunities
10 Jul 2019
Executive summary available inFrench,German,ItalianandSpanish. This paper aims to provide European decision-makers and other stakeholders with a concise overview of AFME’s priority objectives for the European Union in the area of bank prudential and resolution regulation. A broader overview of AFME’s priorities and key recommendations can be found in the accompanying publication “Finance for Europe – Building competitive, resilient and integrated financial markets. A financial services strategy for sustainable growth and competitiveness in 2019–2024”. Priority areas in banking prudential regulation for the new EU legislative cycle Completing the Banking UnionThe completion of the Banking Union remains a key priority to achieve a stronger monetary union. This includes considering the Banking Union as a single jurisdiction in terms of prudential requirements, achieving effective depositor protection and a solution for a European safe asset. Removing the fragmentation in European banking marketsCross-border banks need to be able to manage their capital and liquidity at a consolidated level and to achieve diversification and economies of scale. This will also help to address their lack of profitability and excess capacity. Together with Capital Markets Union this is a powerful way to share risks and to absorb economic shocks. Achieving an ambitious Capital Markets UnionCapital Markets Union (CMU) can increase the diversity of funding sources, reduce the overreliance on banks, and provide the European economy with a ‘spare tyre’ during economic turmoil, when banks’ ability to lend is constrained. Internationally diversified investment portfolios can also help to smooth consumption and investment in case of an economic shock in a specific region. Ensuring openness to global capital marketsIt is vital for users of financial services – corporates, investors, government bodies - to ensure that global capital markets, including the EU, remain open and closely connected. Avoiding significant increases in capital requirementsThe EU implementation of the Basel agreement should not result in significant additional capital requirements, in line with the commitment made by global and EU regulators. Promoting global consistencyGiven the global nature of wholesale banking activities, it is important that global consistency is promoted in respect of the outcomes resulting from the implementation of the prudential standards. {}
Finance for Europe – Building competitive, resilient and integrated financial markets
10 Jul 2019
Executive summary available inFrench,German,ItalianandSpanish. As the European Union gets ready to identify its strategic priorities and to plan its policies for the 2019-2024 legislative term, it is important to reflect on the various forces that are re-shaping many aspects of the economy and the policy landscape. These include an increasingly competitive global economic environment, the growth of disruptive technologies and new business models, as well as the drive to transition to a low-carbon economy. The United Kingdom’s prospective withdrawal from the EU will also be a factor in the near-term policy agenda. In this context, the EU should prioritise a growth strategy that focuses on promoting competitiveness, innovation and deeper integration while transitioning to a greener economy. A competitive, resilient and well-integrated financial system can play a central role in driving this strategy. AFME believes the EU should establish an ambitious agenda for the financial services sector in 2019-2024, which advances the following objectives. Supports European integration and financial stability by providing diversification, shock-absorption and risk sharing channels; Promotes the availability of diverse and efficient financing mechanisms for businesses of all sizes, with particular focus on funding for technological innovation and enterprises with high growth potential, through capital market ecosystems; Finances the transition to a more sustainable economy and helps to close the yearly investment gap of almost EUR 180 billion to achieve EU climate and energy targets by 2030; Provides EU citizens and organisations with a diversity of assets for investment and saving, contributing to wealth creation and the provision of retirement income to address the EU’s demographic challenge. In order to best attract both market liquidity and long-term investment, the EU’s financial markets regulatory framework must be continually evaluated as to whether it is sufficiently competitive and at the cutting edge of innovation and connectivity. {}
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